Bread for a Better World

“It is the wife, the mother only—she who loves her husband and her children as woman ought to love, and who rightly perceives the relations between the dietetic habits and physical and moral condition of her loved ones, and justly appreciates the importance of good bread to their physical and moral welfare—she alone it is,…

Dainty Bread

“The new woman, in the sense of the best woman, the flower of all the womanhood of past ages, has come to stay — if civilization is to endure. The sufferings of the past have but strengthened her, maternity has deepened her, education is broadening her — and she now knows that she must perfect…

Industrial Bread

Emerging from the turbulent, transformative nineteenth century, Manhattan was a well-established manufacturing dynamo, powered by a constant inflow of foreign workers. The city’s ethnic and cultural character had always been varied, but decades of flux had left it fragmented, with working- and middle- and upper-class New Yorkers occupying virtually separate and mutually hostile New Yorks….

Jet Age Bread

Until the middle of the twentieth century, in the United States, gourmet cooking was something associated with precious, effete members of the fashionable upper class. It was about haute cuisine, served with great formality, but it was also about snails and calves’ brains and, possibly, chocolate-covered ants. Middle-class Americans weren’t encouraged to fuss over their…

Yuppie Bread

The word foodie was coined in 1980 by New York Times critic Gael Greene. It described a sensibility that was just taking hold among youngish, well-to-do New Yorkers who had developed an intense new relationship with food and restaurants, along with a taste for luxe ingredients—crème fraiche, sun-dried tomatoes, black walnuts—on an everyday basis. Upper-middle…

Purist Bread

The purist tradition is reactive. It’s a slightly highbrow, civilizing response to the enthusiasm American cooks, ably assisted by Madison Avenue, developed for factory-processed foods by the mid-twentieth century. Before canned vegetables and canned soup, cake mix and pudding mix and Cool Whip came to define normal, down-to-earth food style for virtually all Americans, cooking…